Friday, March 13, 2020

The 15 Best Editing Tips to Craft Clear Content - CoSchedule

The 15 Best Editing Tips to Craft Clear Content It’s a little embarrassing to admit, but I never set out to become an editor. I always loved to write (I recently found an anthology of literature I published at age 10), but I didn’t fully understand the weight of an editor’s role until I had already been editing for a few years. You see, everyone has their own editing processes and their own tricks, so I never knew whether my way was the â€Å"right† way. In fact, most people use one trick in particular: Let someone else do it. That’s because it’s easy to have great ideas. It’s not so easy to write them down in a way that others can understand them. It’s not worth putting your ideas down on a page if you can’t edit your own work or can’t get someone to do it for you. And in today’s content-driven universe, you can’t afford to be both a bad writer and a bad editor. This is why  the role of the great editor is paramount. Whether you use these tips for yourself or pass them along to your favorite college intern, I encourage you to keep your editing chops in tip-top shape. In today’s world of more, more, more, it’s not always the longest or most timely content that wins- it’s the best. In today’s world of more, more, more, it’s not always the longest or most timely content thatGet Your Free Self-Editing ChecklistThe 15 Best Editing Tips to Craft Clear Content1. Put Yourself in Your Audience’s Shoes First and foremost: Audience, audience, audience. You may not see this as a traditional editing tip, and I get that. But after you write your first draft (which should always be for yourself, by the way), it’s time to read through the entire thing and pretend you are someone else- namely, someone in your audience. That â€Å"someone† might be a persona: an avatar of a particular segment of your audience with unique interests and problems. Ask yourself, would that person find this piece valuable? Does it answer a question relevant to their interests? Would they click this headline? Is this writing above or below their experience level? Your answers to these questions will help you tailor future drafts to better serve your audience’s needs. Recommended Reading: How to Find Your Target Audience and Create the Best Content That Connects 2. Read Your Writing Out Loud No, this isn’t about admiring the sound of your own voice or keeping your pet hamster occupied. Reading your work out loud will draw attention to clunky turns of phrase, misused words, and convoluted sentence structures. It’s a great way to revisit your work with fresh eyes (or ears) after hours of writing. Reading out loud doesn’t just help your syntax, either. You’ll more easily detect lapses in your authentic voice- moments when your writing stops sounding like â€Å"you.† You might also discover opportunities to finesse the rhythm and pace of your writing. Grab a glass of water, close that office door, and give this tactic a try. As a bonus, you may even want to consider recording yourself reading aloud so you can listen back and see how you really  sound. Don't want to read your own work out loud? Get an app to do it for you. ReadWrite is a helpful Chrome extension that can do just that: 3. Kill Your Darlings Brace yourself: Ten to fifteen percent of what you’ve written likely needs to be cut. If that percentage seems daunting, don’t despair! Taking a hatchet to that first draft will only make your writing leaner, meaner, and more effective. As you trim, look for repetitive sentences, weak transitions, unnecessary anecdotes, and clichà ©s. Cut or revise anything that hikes up your word count without delivering value in return. Yes,  search engines (and many humans) prefer longer and meatier content. But never prioritize quantity over quality when it comes to your words. 4. Quell Your Writer Ego Skeptical of these editing suggestions? Struggling to find anything to trim or change? Your writer ego might be the culprit. Ego should take a backseat when editing. Remember that first tip, where you put yourself in your audience’s shoes? That shift in perspective helps you serve your reader, rather than yourself. Editing is part of that service. Clinging to your writer ego leads to slimy self-promotion, clouds your ability to see opportunities for improvement, and obstructs your development as a writer. Prioritize what you’re giving your reader, and stronger writing will follow. Prioritize what you’re giving your reader, and stronger writing will follow.5. Make Paragraphs Smaller and Sentences Shorter We tend to pontificate on the intrinsic value of the language we explore through the written word while sipping our steaming cup of tea and baring our souls to the world around us to the sound of the raven’s caw outside our- Gah. Gross. I can barely make sense of sentences like the one above, much less learn from them. And I’m not alone- English-speakers find shorter paragraphs and sentences easier to comprehend. The human brain looks for natural breaks in the text and uses those pauses to interpret what it’s just read. Ramble on for too long, and you’re likely to lose your reader. Most of your sentences should fall comfortably inside the 20- to 25-word range. Publishers disagree on the ideal length of a paragraph for web content- some feel two sentences is long enough, while others insist on a minimum of five sentences. Whatever rule you obey, limit yourself to one idea per paragraph. You may need several words to elaborate on an important point or frame an idea in colorful language to emphasize its power. Go nuts! Just be sure to break those ideas into concise, comprehensible chunks. Recommended Reading: How Long Should a Blog Post Be to Get the Most Traffic and Shares? 6. Vary Sentence Length and Structure I may sound like I’m contradicting the point I made above, but hear me out: Your sentences can vary in length while still being succinct. Cap the majority of your sentences at 20 words, but don’t be afraid to mix it up. Throw in a short, emphatic statement here and there. Step outside that 25-word maximum every so often. These variations create rhythm, control pace, and help hold your reader’s attention to the very last word. Varied sentence lengths create rhythm, control pace, and help hold your reader's attention to the...7. Avoid Adverbs Take it from Stephen King himself: â€Å"The road to hell is paved with adverbs.† â€Å"But,† you say, â€Å"I write content for a martech publication, not fiction! I never use adverbs. When would I use a word like ‘angrily,’ ‘playfully,’ or ‘indubitably?’† Not so fast. Comb your sentences for common adverbs like â€Å"very,† â€Å"totally,† and â€Å"really†- you may find a few have snuck into your writing. And while you might think you need certain adverbs for clarity, look for more specific ways to create emphasis without relying on empty adverbs like â€Å"extremely.† And while you might think you need certain adverbs for clarity, look for more specific ways to...8. Develop an Allergy to Jargon â€Å"Jargon† includes both industry-specific colloquialisms and vocabulary used by experts to talk precisely about high-level concepts, and it’s essential to understand the difference. To an outsider, any industry-specific terms might sound like gibberish. This kind of jargon can be useful when writing for your peers- provided you match your language to your audience’s experience level. The other flavor of jargon, however, muddies your writing. Don’t mistake a â€Å"fancy† word for a precise one. Avoid â€Å"utilizing† or â€Å"leveraging† something when you could simply â€Å"use† it. As you edit, ask yourself, â€Å"Is this language as specific as possible? Is there a simpler word I can use here to communicate the same idea?† If the answer is â€Å"yes,† you’ve got some jargon-slashing to do. Recommended Reading: The Most Complete Content Editing Process to Avoid Copy Disasters 9. Passive Voice Is Not Needed What’s passive voice, you ask? (Hint: I included an example in the title of this section.) To identify passive voice in your writing, look for any sentence where the subject is acted upon by the verb. For example, in the statement, â€Å"This article was written by me,† the subject (â€Å"this article†) receives the verb â€Å"to write.† You could rewrite this sentence to be in active voice by swapping â€Å"this article† with the noun performing the action. Your new, active voice sentence then reads, â€Å"I wrote this article.† You now have a more direct sentence using fewer words! Like magic. Remember, automated grammar-checking software doesn’t always detect these kinds of errors. You’ll need to scan your writing yourself to find and correct any egregious uses of passive voice. Scan your writing yourself to find and correct any egregious uses of passive voice.10. Check Your Gerunds Make sure you haven’t padded your word count with unnecessary gerund phrases- passive verbs followed by â€Å"-ing† words. Gerunds often sneak into your writing like this: â€Å"If you’re wanting to try our service . . .† (Rather than, â€Å"If you want to try our service†) â€Å"In this episode, she is asking . . .† (Rather than, â€Å"In this episode, she asks†) If you find a gerund attached to a passive verb, swap out the phrase for a single active verb. Voila! You just created a stronger sentence. Isn’t editing fun? If you find a gerund attached to a passive verb, swap out the phrase for a single active verb....11. Take Your Time Take your time in all stages of writing, not just the editing stage. Take time to formulate an insanely powerful idea. Take time to flesh out an outline that will keep your piece focused. Take time to write when you’re feeling inspired. And of course, take time to work through edits. Some writers I know spend upwards of six hours writing a 1,500-word blog post. No, they’re not lazy. They’re not newbies. They don’t need an emergency intervention on account of their time management skills. Their writing process takes six hours because it involves thorough research, brainstorming, execution, and editing. They don’t rush any stage of their work, and  neither should you. Need a way to track your time and make the most of it? Try using Toggl: 12. Use a Copyeditor Don’t be afraid to call a professional! Copyeditors are trained to spot errors faster and with greater accuracy than the average content writer. Unlike most grammar-checking software, they apply context to your writing and distinguish between grammatical errors and harmless quirks in your writing voice. If you can’t access a human copywriter, consider a tool like Grammarly. Its grammar robots scan for errors as you type, wherever you type- even inside the bodies of emails. 13. Throw Weak Verbs and Adjectives Out the Window Now that you’ve weeded out the unnecessary gerunds, jargon, and adverbs, turn your focus to those weak verbs and adjectives weighing down your sentences. â€Å"Weak† verbs, this case, include linking verbs or verbs that describe a state of being. In the sentence â€Å"Marketers seem to want to know if this is true,† the phrase â€Å"seem to† describes a state of being. â€Å"Marketers want to know if this is true† preserves the meaning while removing the weak phrase. â€Å"Marketers want proof† is even more direct. Weak adjectives often sneak into your writing as redundancies. Phrases like â€Å"exact same† and â€Å"current trend† apply weak adjectives to words that don’t need further clarification. If a noun tells the same story without the attached adjective, leave it on the cutting room floor. Looking for stronger words to mix up your verbiage? Steal some from this list: 14. Nix Non-Essential Words If all these cuts have you in a sweat, don’t panic- you’re almost there! It’s time to review your writing for remaining non-essential words. These words often lurk in your transitions and use two or three words when one will do. Words like â€Å"that,† â€Å"in order to† (instead of â€Å"to†), and â€Å"may possibly† (instead of â€Å"may†) clog your sentences without adding meaning. Nix ‘em! Words like â€Å"that,† â€Å"in order to† (instead of â€Å"to†), and â€Å"may possibly† (instead of...15. Embrace Your Writerly Tics Yes, you do have to standardize aspects of your writing. Obeying the rules of grammar, structure, and style makes your writing stronger. However, everything else- your voice, your point of view, your process- should come from you. Maybe you’ve got a cheeky sense of humor. Perhaps you like to kick off your content with an anecdote or a provocative claim. Maybe your quirks are more process-oriented- you work from an outline, or you always write your first drafts in a single, frenzied sitting. Embrace these habits! They’re what set your content apart. Embrace your quirks! They're what set your content apart.Personal, memorable writing attracts returning readers and builds your following. If readers enjoy and trust your voice, they’ll choose your content over an anonymous contributor the next time they need an expert opinion. Meeting your word count is only half the battle. Once you’ve got your words on the page, it’s your job to make each of those words count. Your readers don’t have time for fluff- serve them content that is worth their time, even if it means a brutal and bloody editing process before you hit â€Å"Publish.† Take it from a managing editor: These tips will make it all worth it.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Risk management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Risk management - Assignment Example Hacking is the term, which refers to intrusion in a computer system or a whole computer network in order to exploit the data or information for any possible purpose. Hacking is an illegal activity in which a computer system or network is being accessed by external sources. Hackers have several prominent reasons for which the activity of hacking occurs. These reasons include financial benefits, industrial espionage, and online extortion and challenge (Pankaj, 2005). There are several categories of hacking which are listed below: White Hat: Hackers attempts to break security systems for testing purposes, which are non-malicious (Graves, 2007). Blue Hat: hackers are external intruders who aim to test a security system before its launch (Graves, 2007). Black Hat: hackers are intruders who break security for personal reasons or gain (Graves, 2007). Grey Hat: hackers voluntarily breech the network security to inform about the weaknesses to the host (Graves, 2007). Elite Hacker: is consider ed to be the most skilled hackers (Graves, 2007). Hacktivist: aims to announce a political, social or religious proposal through hacking (Graves, 2007). Nation State: are official hackers who are officials of intelligence or cyber warfare operatives (Graves, 2007). Introduction As the overall background and description of hacking has been stated in the previous paragraph, the aim of this report will be stated in this heading. The potential risk of hacking is intrinsically associated with any organization, which is based upon computer networking. In contemporary times, all of the organizations utilize the technology of networking in any industry or business, but there are several businesses, which are entirely based upon computer networking. Most of these organizations are service providers and most of the official occurrences for these organizations are dealt online. From all of these organizations, Sony is a prominent corporation, which do not only provide services, but it has prod uced several electronic products for entertainment. Out of this vast range of products, which have been produced by Sony, PlayStation is one of the most successful products. However, in 2011, Sony had to come across with an intensely grave IT problem, which was caused by external intrusion, by hackers. This incident caused a great loss to the company, not only in monetary terms, but also in terms of popularity and reputation. The incident is known as Sony Network Outage in which Sony had to turn off the whole PlayStation network for several days. This report is aimed to analyse the Sony Network Outage with respect to the seven stages risk management cycle. It will also present a brief explication of each step regarding the problem faced by Sony. Sony Network Outage 2011 It was in April 2011 when Sony Playstation Network got down. Approximately 77 million user s’ accounts of Sony Network got hacked. The accounts were actually seized, preventing the users to access Sony’ s online web services (Peckham, 2011). The accounts were stolen and the hackers retrieved the personal identification information of the users. It was an attack of three days and after that Sony shutdown its network on April 20, 2011. The attack lasted for 24 days keeping Sony network under the control of the hackers. The risk assessors claimed out that it is one the largest security breaches the company has ever faced. It was something, which really brought

Sunday, February 9, 2020

The Fashion Industry and the Role of the Media in Shapin Dissertation

The Fashion Industry and the Role of the Media in Shapin - Dissertation Example The study "The Fashion Industry and the Role of the Media in Shapin" concerns the fashion and media and analyzes the Changing Perception of a Woman’s Physical Image. After World War I, with the popularity of fashion magazines, print media, television and the internet, the popular media has presented the perceived ‘ideal’ image of a woman. This mostly unrealistic perception, being pushed on to the people, has had a negative effect on the women’s own perception of their physical image often putting health on a lower priority or even contradicting healthy routines in favor of attaining such physical attire. The complicated perceptions of one’s own physical image make one concerned about this aspect. Research on this self perception has found discontent among women showing their body dissatisfaction and at a higher rate than males. Such false projections, which have nothing to do with a real drive to get a better appearance, put individuals at a risk of disturbance and discontent. The idealized thinness and prejudiced height, hair and weight projected by the media as being ‘attractive’ influences the masses and makes women match those descriptions which is not only destruction of originality but also dangerous for health the way it gets commercialized, rather littered, and then picked by the adolescents. The wrong message of ‘standards for acceptability’ that the models from fashion industry and the media send do not actually define the beauty; in fact, the repeated pushing of such image on the women.... ? that the models from fashion industry and the media send do not actually define the beauty (Dittmar & Howard, 2004; Thompson & Stice, 2001); in fact, the repeated pushing of such image on the women population puts a conflict between the actual standards and the depicted standard making a woman choose to be unhealthy in order to achieve that standard (Dittmar & Howard, 2004, p. 478). This has been found in previous research to have direct proportion to the time of exposure to such commercial propaganda (Schooler et al. 2004). Many times, the sole purpose of such depictions and portrayal is to create an artificial need of the products, which are not actually needed, and then to sell them to that audience. 2.0 Purpose of research The purpose of this research is to evaluate the change in perception of a woman’s physical image in the eyes of the population in general and in the eyes of woman herself. Researching on why and how these perceptions have changed over this period of ti me, which can safely be regarded as an era of contemporary change in this respect, can provide us with useful results that actually provide some insight on how the fashion and show business industry has driven this. Addressing everlasting concern over weight and appearance in a non issue approach can help minimize the prejudice on being slimmer from as young as 6 years old (Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). The dissatisfaction, which is one of the major issues in a woman’s teenage due to perception of one’s own physical image (Schwitzer, Bergholz, Dore, & Salimi, 1998; Stice & Whitenton, 2002), is a topic that needs special attention to guard young girls from further worsening their health situation in fear of weight gain (Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002; Field et al., 1999). What you think of

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Accounting standards and principles Essay Example for Free

Accounting standards and principles Essay In 1973, international accounting standards committee issued international accounting standards (IAS) which lasted till 2000 when they were replaced by IFRS. These are standard based principles, accounting practices guidelines, interpretations and framework adopted by the (IASB) (Epstein Jermakowicz, 2010). In 2001, IASC was replaces by IASB which was mandated in setting international accounting standards. The objective of IFRS is to make companies financial statements to reflect truth and fair view of companies’ affairs as at particular date (Epstein Jermakowicz, 2010). Generally accepted accounting standards are principles and accounting guidelines recognized by a given territory, jurisdiction or most countries especially the United States to supplement the role and objectives of IFRS. Financial statements should be presented, summarized and recorded based on particular generally convections, rules, ethics and standards in a certain jurisdiction i. e. GAAP. Formulation of GAAP and IFRS For consistency and fairness in financial statements which detail the performance of a company, certain rules and standards must apply. See more: Satirical elements in the adventure of Huckleberry Finn essay These are commonly referred to as â€Å"generally accepted† and all accounting professionals apply them as appropriate and ethical. Failure to apply them in accounting field result to agreed penalty by either body governing the practice or the territory restraining unethical practices to professionals. Various committees and bodies are put in places as setters which formulate and develop these accounting standards. International Financial reporting standards are developed and formulated by International Accounting Standards Board while Generally Accepted Accounting Principles are formulated by local financial reporting standards board. In the United States, the establishment and development are influenced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), and Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) (Miller Bahnson, 2002). All these bodies and committees have different roles and objectives which are agreed upon on influence to different accounting sectors profession generally accepted principles. International financial reporting standards are based in International Accounting Standards which are accepted globally. ISA changed its operations in 2000 and IFRS were added to cope with the changing dynamics of global accounting profession. Through discussions, contributions and comparison agreements, different bodies through their representatives contribute to the principles developed by IASB. Complete responsibility in all technical matters that include; preparation and issuing of international financial reporting standards, are based on the selected IASB (ISCF IASB, 2007). Thus, the efforts of IASB involves, setting standards, formulating process of adopting standards ensuring the needs of different countries in the globalizing accounting profession (Mwaura Nyaboga, n. d). Difference between GAAP and IFRS GAAP and IFRS have difference in their jurisdiction of usage, enforcement and the way these standards are formulated. International financial reporting standards are globally recognized accounting standards, which are set by IASC from 1973 to 2001 and from 2001 by IASB. GAAP are accounting standards recognized as â€Å"generally accepted† by the United States. In summarizing, recording and presenting accounting information within a nation, the process is dictated by rules and convection of GAAP in the United States. International accounting standard board does not directly set or control provisions of rules and convections adopted by GAAP. Standards set by this powerful board are based from agreements and suggestions from various local accounting boards e. g. Kenya accounting board (KAS). Various nations will try to incorporate the set standards within the GAAP in their country. FASB in America has a mandate to set accounting rules, convection and standards that are later adopted by the US GAAP (Mwaura Nyaboga, n. d). This means that the role of formulating and developing the rules and standards principally lie to the local accounting boards. Various nations have made it compulsory for their accounting practice to adopt IFRS rather than developing jurisdiction GAAP (Mwaura Nyaboga, n. d). In addition, differences on the implementation and formulation exist in financial presentation between GAAP and IFRS. These differences are commonly in consolidation, statement of income format, inventory valuation and recognition, earning per share calculations and development cost recognition in financial statement. For example, in United States, consolidated financial statements are prepared on risk and reward models while international financial reporting standards prefers control based model where consolidation is done on the percentage of control and influence in subsidiaries and associates (Forgeas, 2008). Risks and rewards is more complicated since risk are subjective valued. Extraordinary items such as depreciation and amortization are included in the income statements under IFRS and in the US GAAP are accounted for after net income. This means extraordinary expenses are not taken to contribute net profits (Forgeas, 2008). Under the US GAAP, companies have option to use either LIFO OR FIFO methods of inventory valuation while in IFRS, LIFO method which is historical valuation method is recommended. When computing for earning per share under IFRS average on interims calculations are not included whereas in the US GAAP, computation requires that individual interim increase in shares be done averagely (Forgeas, 2008). Capitalization on development expenditure is done under IFRS and recognized as fixed asset while in the US GAAP; capitalization is not done on development expenditure but is accounted for in income statement as expenses (Forgeas, 2008). Another difference between GAAP and IFRS is how transactions are interpreted to mean. It is commonly argued that GAAP within a nation is rule based and IFRS is principle based. This means that transactions are interpreted based on the stated rules and standards. Ruled based interpretations lies with the professional judgment on certain transaction treatments in account. For principle based interpretation, the IFRS provide on more judgmental way to interpret transactions. This implies that principles are there to the interpretation of transaction and in rule based is on the professional judgment. The problems arise on whether judgment is accurate professional judgment or guessed professional judgment to transactions treatment (Forgeas, 2008). Benefits of GAAP and IFRS Uses of standardized procedures to financial statements summarizing, recording and presentation to the users bears a number of benefits to both the reporting entity and the user such as shareholder, lenders, creditors or the government taxation organ. Adoption of GAAP in the US and IFRS by other countries gives significant economic and financial benefits to decision making. Both approaches give consistency in managing companies and it is easy to compare companies using the same standards. Both standards put strict measures on deviation from the rules and ethics in a particular standard. In most countries for a company to trade public GAAP and IFRS must be followed and they require all financial statements be subjected to an independent audit and opinion thereby be given on the applicability of standards in the company. These independent accountants (auditors) must certify financial statements and any notes to financial statement have been prepared and to be presented in accordance of either of the standard. These two provide adequate explanations and definitions to transactions, provide needed assumptions to these transaction and methods applied in either computations or accounting for the transaction. By this, companies are able to follow the requirements year by year enhancing comparisons/benchmarks between companies and consistency in business operations. Valuation of various assets and liabilities both at the start and at the end of the year would be different between companies giving hectic time in comparison and auditing. These two standards enhance transparence and uniformity of valuation procedures of assets. For example, valuation of assets like investment and stocks unrealized profits can be ambiguous if such standards are not in place. Conclusion To make financial statement present a true and fairly performance and position of the business at a particular date, financial accounting standards are needed. High quality standards need to be set for reliable information that is adequate and useful to investor or creditor. These high quality standards and enforcement will provide transparency in business operations and promote full discloser to financial information which gives consistent application making statement user perform comparison of year by year and among competing companies.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen, distinguished guests, faculty, staff, graduates of the Class of 2012, families and friends. I tried to think of something profound to say today, but it may be too presumptuous to assume that my short life experience is enough to impart any great wisdom. However, I will at least share with you something that I have learned. As a brief disclaimer: individual results may vary; drowsiness and/or dizziness are the most common side effects. Contact your doctor if symptoms persist. Wisdom is something of an enigma that cannot be achieved by the pursuit of knowledge alone. It comes from the lessons of trial and error coupled with determination, persistence and commitment. This idea can best be illustrated in the famous words of Thomas Edison when he said, "I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work." Wisdom is a never-ending cycle of blending knowledge with life experience and lessons learned that are not soon forgotten. Ultimately, these things are the tools and materials we use to build our futures. Based on the values and in...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Emma Goldman

You can never imagine a world without Emma Goldman. Emma Goldman died on May 14, 1940. Emma dedicated her life to the creation of a radically social order. Also, she embraced anarchism for its vision; and it offered liberty, harmony, and social Justice. She had a deep commitment to absolute freedom and that led her to espouse a range of controversial causes. Goldman was a radical thinker. Forty years on she is more than emblematic, she is iconic. Emma Goldman was born in the imperial city of Russia of Kovno on June 27, 1869. Emma's mother Taube was married to a man when he was 15 years old He later died and she was left with two children.Emma's mother had a second marriage arranged to Abraham Goldman. First of all, when Emma was a child she constantly was abused by her stepfather when she displeased him. Emma was uncontrollable and rebellious to her stepfather â€Å"I'll kill that brat†, he often said. (Gornick 7). Also, the family constantly moved from Konovo to Konigsberg to Petersburg. Emma's education was very limited. Although she passed the exam to secondary school, she was denied the character reference necessary for admission. The religion teacher declared her â€Å"a terrible child who would grow into a worse woman† (Gornick 7. When Emma became 12 years old education came to an end for her. When Emma was 16 years old her father told her it was time for her to get married and he would arrange this. She begged once more to return to school instead of getting married. Emma begged her father to immigrate to the United States with her sister Helena; they both wanted to Join their older sister Lena already living in upstate New York. She had threated suicide to her stepfather because her stepfather did not let her immigrate and later he let her go. In 1885, Emma immigrated to the United States and settled in Rochester, New York.She began working in clothing factories in 1886 and by the age of fifteen she worked in a corset factory. Also, Emma w orked 10 hours a day and Emma only made two and a half dollars a week. Emma met Joseph Kershner at one of her Jobs and he also shared a love for books and hatred for work. She was only 18 years old when he had convinced her that they should marry. Moreover, she learned that he was depressed and he was attracted to Emma because he thought his vitality would rescue from himself. She sued him for divorce and left him within a few months of their wedding.By 1889, she developed anarchist ideas. Her speeches attracted attention in the United States. Emma formed a close association with Alexander Beckman who was imprisoned during 1892 for attempting to assassinate Henry Clay Flink during the Homestead Steel Strike. Beckman was Goldman's first real love. Hecklers suppressed her lectures. Also, police officers would suppress her speeches and writing. Eventually, she was arrested so often that she began to carry a book wherever she went because she feared sitting in Jail with nothing to read. Emma was arrested in New York City in 1893 for inciting a riot when a group of unemployed workers reacted to a speech she had given. Goldman embarked on tours in Europe and the United States after her release from prison. In 1906, she had founded Mother Earth, a Moreover, in 1908 Goldman's naturalization as a citizen was revoked by a legal stratagem. She had published â€Å"Anarchism† and other essays two years later. Emma Goldman went to Jail because she spoke freely on birth control. When World War I broke out in Europe she opposed United States involvement and she later agitated against military conscription.In June 1917 she was sentenced for two years for these activities. In 1901, Leon Czologosz claiming he was acting under Goldman's influence, assassinated Although she had not been involved and only met him briefly, she was arrested immediately as an accomplice. Lack of evidence eventually forced the authorities to release her from prison. In September 1919 she was caug ht in hysteria over a largely imaginary network of communist operatives. Emma was called Red Emma because she was declared a subversive alien and she was deported to the Soviet Union. She did not stay there for very long.Two years after leaving she ecounted her experiences in her book My Disillusionment in Russia (1923). Goldman was an advocate for birth control, workers' rights, equality, sexual freedom, and independence for women. Also, she was either harassed or arrested anytime she gave a lecture and she was also banned outright for speaking sometimes. Goldman had become a prominent fgure as a woman in the fght for freedom in America, for economic freedom for women, racial education, and anti-militarism Even though Emma was hostile against religion she had core beliefs emerging from a Jewish tradition that had championed a universal Justice.Emma applied her ideas about free love to women, men, homosexuals, and heterosexuals consistently. Emma believed that individuals should ent er into and leave personal relationships with no constraints, a view determined by her commitment to the principle of absolute freedom and her experience of a failed marriage. She stated, â€Å"If I ever love a man again I will give myself to him without being bound by the rabbi or the law, and when that love dies, I will leave without permission. † (Goldman 1889). Goldman helped launch the No Conscription League in May 1917, soon after the entry into World War .She and Berkman were arrested for conspiring against the draft in 1917. Emma had argued her actions far from being anti American, were intended to prompt her adopted country to live up to its own ideas. Emma believed that the United States they had no right to make a war and she was a pacifist. Also, rather than organizing a conspiracy to obstruct the draft, she said, she had been claiming to exercise her rights to free rights and she had been educating her audiences about conscientious objection. After Goldman's rele ase she was re arrested on the order of the young J.Edgar Hoover, who had persuaded the courts to deny Goldman's citizenship. In 1920 she and Beckman had questioned the Soviet leader on the lack of freedom of speech and the press and the persecution of anarchists in Soviet Russia. Goldman spent the rest of her days in exile from the United States wandering through Sweden, Germany, France, England, and Canada. In 1925, she married an English Coal Miner but it was only a formality to obtain her British citizenship. In the 1920s and 1930s she struggled economically and was frustrated by the restrictions on her status as an xile on political activities.Also, she engaged herself in literary projects and in 1931 she wrote an autobiography Living My Life. Emma became increasingly concerned about the rising tide of Fascism and Nazism. The next several years she lectured Canada where she worked to gain asylum for Spanish refugees and helped foreign born radicals threatened with deportation t o fascist countries. For example in July 1936, when the Spanish American War erupted Goldman supported the Loyalist cause with an enthusiasm reminiscent of her early years in America. â€Å"In addition, narchists had succeeded in receiving popular support in parts of Spain.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Practice in Supporting a Topic Sentence with Specific Details

AÂ  topic sentence contains the main idea upon which a paragraph is developed. Often it appears at (or near) the beginning of a paragraph, introducing the main idea and suggesting the direction that the paragraph will take. What follows a topic sentence are a number of supporting sentences that develop the main idea with specific details. Practice Excercise Here is an effective topic sentence for a descriptive paragraph: My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped, blond guitar—the first instrument that I ever taught myself how to play. This sentence not only identifies the prized belonging (an old, slightly warped, blond guitar) but also suggests why the writer values it (the first instrument that I ever taught myself how to play). Some of the sentences below support this topic sentence with specific descriptive details. Others, however, offer information that would be inappropriate in a unified descriptive paragraph. Read the sentences carefully, and then pick out only those that support the topic sentence with precise descriptive details. When youre done, compare your responses with the suggested answers below: It is a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed.My grandparents gave it to me on my thirteenth birthday.I think they bought it at the Music Lovers Shop in Rochester where they used to live.At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key.Although copper strings are much harder on the fingers than nylon strings, they sound much better than the nylon ones.The strings are stretched down a long slim neck.The frets on the neck are tarnished, and the wood has been worn down by years of fingers pressing chords.It was three months before I could even tune the guitar properly, and another few months before I could manage the basic chords.You have to be very patient when first learning how to play the guitar.You should set aside a certain time each day for practice.The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that has been slightly damaged in shipping.A guitar can be awkward to hold, particu larly if it seems bigger than you are, but you need to learn how to hold it properly if youre ever going to play it right.I usually play sitting down because its more comfortable that way.The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago.I have a Gibson now and hardly ever play the Madeira any more. Suggested Answers The following sentences support the topic sentence with precise descriptive details: 1. It is a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. 4. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key. 6. The strings are stretched down a long slim neck. 7. The frets on the neck are tarnished, and the wood has been worn down by years of fingers pressing chords. 11. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that has been slightly damaged in shipping. 14. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago.